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Classification

CHILDHOOD GLAUCOMAS

I.               Developmental Glaucomas

 

            A. Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG)

                        1. Newborn congenital glaucoma          

                        2. Infantile congenital glaucoma

                        3. Juvenile congenital glaucoma

 

            B. Juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG)

 

            C. Developmental glaucomas associated with systemic diseases

                        1. Sturge-Weber syndrome

                        2. Neurofibromatosis (NF-1)

                        3. Stickler syndrome

                        4. Oculocerebrorenal syndrome (Lowe)

                        5. Rieger syndrome

                        6. SHORT syndrome

                        7. Hepatocerebrorenal syndrome (Zellweger)

                        8. Marfan syndrome

                        9. Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

                        10. Infantile glaucoma with retardation and paralysis

                        11. Oculodentodigital dysplasia

                        12. Glaucoma with microcornea and absent sinuses

                        13. Mucopolysaccharidosis

                        14. Trisomy 13

                        15. Caudal regression syndrome

                        16. Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome)

                        17. Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita

                        18. Warburg syndrome

                        19. Kniest syndrome (skeletal dysplasia)

                        20. Michel's syndrome

                        21. Nonprogressive hemiatrophy

                        22. PHACE syndrome

                        23. Soto syndrome

                        24. Linear scleroderma

                        25. GAPO syndrome

                        26. Roberts' pseudothalidomide syndrome

                        27. Wolf-Hirschhorn (4p-) syndrome

                        28. Robinow syndrome

                        29. Nail-patella syndrome

                        30. Proteus syndrome

                        31. Fetal hydantoin syndrome

                        32. Cranio-cerebello-cardiac (3C) syndrome

                        33. Brachmann-deLange syndrome

         

     D. Developmental glaucomas with associated ocular anomalies

                        1. Aniridia

                                    a. congenital aniridic glaucoma

                                    b. acquired aniridic glaucoma

                        2. Congenital ocular melanosis

                        3. Sclerocornea

                        4. Congenital iris ectropion syndrome

                        5. Peters' syndrome

                        6. Iridotrabecular dysgenesis(iris hypoplasia)

                        7. Posterior polymorphous dystrophy

                        8. Idiopathic or familial elevated venous pressure

                        9. Anterior corneal staphyloma

                        10. Congenital microcoria

                        11. Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy

          

II. Secondary (Acquired) Glaucomas

         

            A. Traumatic glaucoma

                        1. Acute glaucoma

                                    a. Angle concussion             

                                    b. Hyphema

                                    c. Ghost cell glaucoma

                        2. Glaucoma following angle-recession

                        3. Arteriovenous fistula

 

            B. Glaucoma with intraocular neoplasms

                        1. Retinoblastoma

                        2. Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG)

                        3. Leukemia

                        4. Melanoma of ciliary body

                        5. Melanocytoma

                        6. Iris rhabdomyosarcoma

                        7. Aggressive iris nevi

                        8. Medulloepithelioma

                        9. Mucogenic glaucoma with iris stromal cyst

 

C. Glaucoma related to chronic uveitis

                        1. Open-angle glaucoma

                        2. Angle-blockage mechanisms

                                    a. Synechial angle closure

                                    b. Iris bombe with pupillary block

                                    c. Trabecular endothelialization

 

            D. Lens-related glaucoma

                        1. Subluxation-dislocation with pupillary block

                                    a. Marfan syndrome

                                    b. Homocystinuria

                                    c. Weill-Marchesani syndrome

                                    d. Axial subluxation high myopia syndrome

                                    e. Ectopia lentis et pupillae

                        2. Spherophakia with pupillary block

                        3. Phacolytic glaucoma

 

            E. Glaucoma following lensectomy for congenital cataracts

                        1. Pupillary-block glaucoma

                        2. Glaucoma following infantile lensectomy

 

            F. Glaucoma related to corticosteroids

 

            G. Glaucoma secondary to rubeosis

                        1. Retinoblastoma

                        2. Coats' disease

                        3. Medulloepithelioma

                        4. Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy

                        5. Chronic retinal detachment

 

            H. Angle-closure glaucoma

                        1. Cicatrical retinopathy of prematurity

                        2. Microphthalmos

                        3. Nanophthalmos

                        4. Retinoblastoma

                        5. Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous

                        6. Congenital pupillary iris-lens membrane

                        7. Topiramate therapy

                        8. Central retinal vein occlusion

                        9. Ciliary body cysts

                        10. Following laser therapy for threshold ROP

 

            I. Malignant glaucoma

 

            J. Glaucoma associated with increased venous pressure

                        1. Cavernous or dural A-V shunt

                        2. Orbital disease

                        3. Sturge-weber syndrome

 

            K. Intraocular infection related glaucoma

                        1. Acute recurrent toxoplasmosis

                        2. Acute herpetic iritis

                        3. Maternal rubella infection

                        4. Following endogenous endophthalmitis

 

            L. Glaucoma secondary to unknown etiology

                        1. Iridocorneal endothelial syndrome (ICE)

 

            M. Secondary glaucomas associated with hereditary ocular conditions

                        1. Retinoblastoma

                        2. Nanophthalmos

                        3. Ectopia lentis disorders

                        4. Primary angle-closure glaucoma